Fentanyl Powder , also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Fentanyl is available in a number of forms including by injection, as a skin patch, and to be absorbed through the tissues inside the mouth.
Fentanyl Powder Common side effects include nausea, constipation, sleepiness, and confusion.Serious side effects may include a decreased effort to breathe (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, or addiction. Fentanyl works in part by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is about 75 times stronger than morphine for a given amount. Some fentanyl analogues may be as much as 10,000 times stronger than morphine.
Fentanyl Powder was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.It was developed by testing chemicals similar in structure to pethidine (meperidine) for opioid activity.In 2015, 1,600 kilograms (3,500 lb) were used globally.
As of 2017, fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine
Intravenous fentanyl is often used for anaesthesia and analgesia. During anaesthesia it is often used along with a hypnotic agent like propofol. It is also administered in combination with a benzodiazepine, such as midazolam, to produce sedation for procedures such as endoscopy, cardiac catheterization, and oral surgery, or in emergency rooms.It is often used in the management of chronic pain including cancer pain.
Fentanyl Powder is sometimes given intrathecally as part of spinal anaesthesia or epidurally for epidural anaesthesia and analgesia. Because of fentanyl’s high lipid solubility, its effects are more localized than morphine, and some clinicians prefer to use morphine to get a wider spread of analgesia.
Fentanyl transdermal patches (Durogesic/Duragesic) are used in chronic pain management. The patches work by slowly releasing fentanyl through the skin into the bloodstream over 48 to 72 hours, allowing for long-lasting pain management. Dosage is based on the size of the patch, since, in general, the transdermal absorption rate is constant at a constant skin temperature. Rate of absorption is dependent on a number of factors. Body temperature, skin type, amount of body fat, and placement of the patch can have major effects. The different delivery systems used by different makers will also affect individual rates of absorption. Under normal circumstances, the patch will reach its full effect within 12 to 24 hours; thus, fentanyl patches are often prescribed with a fast-acting opioid (such as morphine or oxycodone) to handle breakthrough pain